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John Mcleod-Campbell:

The Nature of the Atonement and its Relation to Remission of Sins and Eternal Life 1873 (PDF)

Christ: The Bread of Life 1869 (PDF)

Responsibility for the Gift of Eternal Life 1873 (PDF)

Thoughts on Revelation 1874 (PDF)


Edward Irving

The Doctrine of the Incarnation Opened in Six Sermons (PDF)


Sermon 1: The Beginning of the Origin of the Mystery that the Eternal Word should take unto Himself a Body, is the Holy will and Good Pleasure of God

Sermon 2: The End of the Mystery of the Incarnation is the Glory of God

Part 1. By Manifestation

Part 2. By Action

Sermon 3: The Method is by Taking up the Fallen Humanity

Part 1. The Composition of Christ’s Person

Part 2. The Universal Reconciliation wrought by His Death, and the Particular Election ministered by His Life and Glory

Part 3. The Removal of the Law, and the Bringing in of Grace.

Part 4. Conclusions

Sermon 4: The Preparation for and the very act of the Incarnation of Christ.

Part 1. The Humiliation in Flesh unto Death

Part 2. The Descent into Hell

Sermon 5: The Fruits of the Incarnation

Part 1. Grace and Peace

Part 2. The Promulgation or Preaching the same

Part 3. The Personal Application of the Same

Sermon 6: Conclusions Concerning the Subsistence of God, and the Subsistence of the Creature, derived from Reflecting upon the Incarnation

Sermon 7: The Church with Her Endowment of Holiness and Power

Sermon 8. The Gifts of the Holy Ghost Commonly called Supernatural

Appendix to the Treatise on the Incarnation


James Franklin Bethune-Baker

The Meaning of “Homoousios” in the Constantinopolitan Creed




Introduction to the Early History of Christian Doctrine


Chapter 1


The scope of the book—What Christian Doctrines are
The part played by Heresies (note 1)
Gradual Progress and Development
Notes: Dogma

Chapter 2

The Beginning of Doctrines in the New Testament

The New Testament gives the earliest interpretations
The doctrine of God
The doctrine of Man—of sin
The doctrine of Atonement
The doctrine of the Church and the Sacraments
the Eucharist

Chapter 3

The Development of Doctrine

Different Theories in the explanation of the development of Doctrine—
(1) Corruption and Degeneration (the Deists)
(2) Disciplina arcani (Trent)
(3) Development (Newman)
In what sense development occurred
Influence of Greek thought on the expression of doctrine
Note: οἰκνομία, ‘Accommodation,’ ‘Reserve’

Chapter 4

The Sources of Doctrine: Oral Tradition—Holy Scripture

Earliest idea of Christian inspiration
. . . . . . . . . . . of tradition
Inspiration of Scripture: different conceptions
The Apostolic Fathers
Muratorian Fragment of Canon
The Apologists
Clement and Origen
Interpretation of Scripture. The written word—
Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement
Origen’s theory
The Cappadocians—Tyconius, Augustine—The School of Antioch
The place of tradition in interpretation—

Chapter 5

Jewish Attempts at Interpretation—Ebionism

Characteristic Jewish Conceptions
Different degrees
The Clementines
Note: Chiliasm

Chapter 6

Gentile Attempts at Interpretation—Gnosticism

Characteristics of Oriental Religious Thought
Two problems of Evil
Oriental ideas applied to the Christian Revelation
The Gnostics—their aims and classifications of the various schools
The earlier representations of Gnostic Conceptions
Marcion and his followers
Carpocrates and his followers—The Cainites and the Ophites
The School of Basilides
The Valentinians
The influence of Gnosticism on the development of Christian Doctrine
Note: Manichesim

Chapter 7

The Reaction against Gnosticism. Monarchianism

The ‘Monarchian’ School of interpreters prompted by ‘orthodox’ intention
Attempts at Explanation which should maintain alike the oneness of God and the Divinity of Christ
Two Main Schools—
(a) Dynamic or Rationalistic
(b) Modalistic or ‘Patripassian’
The Alogi the point of departure for both Schools
(a) The Theodotians
— Artemon
— Paul of Samosata
(b) Praxeas and Noetus
— Sabellius and his followers
Sympathy with Sabellius at Rome
— Novatian
— Hippolytus
— Monarchian exegesis
— Lucian
Paul of Samosata and ὁμοούσιος

Chapter 8

The Correspondence between Dionysius of Rome and Dionysius of Alexandria

Significance of the Correspondence
The points at issue
Diverse uses of the equivocal terms οὐσία and ὑπόστασις and confusion due to Latin rendering of οὐσία by substantia

Chapter 9

The Logos Doctrine

The doctrine fully expressed in outline in the prologue to the Gospel according to St. John, but not fully appreciated; different aspects and relations of the doctrine represented by different early Christian writers—these to be regarded as typical and complementary rather than as mutually exclusive.
The Epitles of Ignatius
– ἀγένητος and ἀγέννητος (note 12)
The Letter to Diognetus
Justin Martyr
– The Human Soul in Christ (note 21)
– In all three the distinction recognised is cosmic rather than hypostatic.
Athenagoras—his fuller recognition of the problem
Irenaeus—important contributions to the doctrine
Clement of Alexandria
The Logos Doctrine superseded by the Doctrine of Sonship

Chapter 10

Tertullian’s Doctrine of the Godhead

Tertullian’s use of terms and analogies
Doctrine of the Sonship and the Trinity
The full Nicene and Chalcedonian doctrine

Chapter 11

Origen’s Doctrine of the Godhead

The great importance and influence of Origen
The basis of his doctrine
The eternal generation of the Son
The Trinity
Apparently contradictory teaching

Chapter 12

The Arian Controversy

Introductory—the previous course of the doctrine and the causes of the controversy
Arius and his teaching
The sources of knowledge of Arian theories
The development of the doctrine of the Person of Christ before Arius (note 2)
The sources of knowledge of Arian theories (note 3)
Arian interpretation of Scripture
Outbreak of controversy and history up to the Council of Nicaea
The Council of Nicaea and its Creed
The reaction after Nicaea—personal and doctrinal
Attempts to supercede the Nicene Creed—Council of Antioch 341
-Its second Creed
Its other Creeds
Opposition of the West to any new Creed—Council of Sardica 343
Renewed attempts to secure a non-Nicene Creed—the μακρόστιχος ἔκθεσις 
Condemnation of Photinus and tranquilization of the ‘moderates’: subsidence of fears of Sabellianism
Development of extreme form of Arianism after death of Constans
The Council of Sirmium 357
Arianism in the West (note 65)
The Sermian manifesto (note 66)
Protests of ‘moderates’ in the East
The ‘Homoean’ compromise.
The gradual conversion of ‘Semi-Arians’ and convergence of parties into the Nicene definition.
Final victory of the Nicene interpretation at the Council of Constantinople.
The Constantinopolitan Creed (note 84)
Arianism outside the Empire, and the causes of the failure of Arianism (note 85)
Homooiousios and the Homoeans
The meaning of Homoousios in the ‘Constantinopolitan’ Creed
‘By the will of the Father’
Μονογενής— Unigentus—Unicus

Chapter 13

The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit and the Trinity

The course through which the doctrine went
The Old Testament and the New Testament doctrine
The early Church
The full doctrine expressed by Tertullian
Origen’s exposition of the doctrine—the first systematic attempt at a scientific expression of it in view of difficulties suggested
The teaching in the Church just before the outbreak of Arianism—
Gregory Thaumaturgus
Dionysius of Alexandria
Eusebius of Caesarea

The Arian theories—not emphasised and for a time ignored
The teaching that was given in the Church in the middle of the fourth century shewn by Cyril of Jerusalem lectures
Need for authoritative guidance as to the doctrine
The teaching of Athanasius (the Letters to Sarapion)
and of Hilary (the de Trinitate)

The new theories of Macedonius
The doctrine declared at Alexandria in 362 and at subsequent synods in the East and in the West
The Epiphanian Creed
The procession of the Spirit—relation to Father and Son (note 63)

Basil’s treatise on the Holy Spirit
Gregory of Nyssa, ‘that there are not three Gods’
The prevailing uncertainty reflected in the sermons of Gregory of Nazianzus
The Council of Constantinople

Augustine’s statement of the doctrine
The περιχώρησις (note 83)
Niceta on the doctrine of the Spirit (note)
οὐσία and ὑπόστασις

Chapter 14

The Christological Controversies—Apollinarianism

The results of previous developments of doctrine
The point of departure of Apollinarius and his theories
objections to them and his defence
The union of the two natures not satisfactorily expressed.
The human soul in Christ
The human will in Christ
How can Christ be ‘complete man’ and ‘without sin?’
The Athanasian Creed

Chapter 15


The theological schools of Alexandria and Antioch
The teaching Diodorus of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia
The outbreak of the controversy—Nestorius at Constantinople
The title θεοτόκος
Cyril of Alexandria—denunciation of the Nestorius teaching
Cyril’s Anathemas and the answers of Nestorius
Their significance and the reception given to them
Cyril’s dogmatic letter
Earlier teaching in the Church on the subject (Tertullian, Origen, Athanasius)
The Council of Ephesus and the victory of Cyril
The terms of agreement between Cyril and the Antiochenes—the Union Creed
Dissatisfaction on both sides with the definitions—Cyril’s defence of them
The strength and weaknesses of Nestorianism
Suppression of Nestorianism within the Empire
θεοφορος ἄνθρωπος
The Nestorian (East-Syrian) Church

Chapter 16


The teaching of Eutychius—his condemnation
Appeal to the West and counter-attack on Flavian
The Council of Ephesus
Victory of the Eutychians through the Emporer’s support
Death of Theodosius—A new council summoned
The Council of Chalcedon and its Definition of Faith
The Letter of Leo to Flavian
The later history of Eutychianism—Monophysites
The communicatio idiomatum
Christ’s human nature impersonal
The Κένωσις

Chapter 17

The Doctrine of Man—Sin and Grace—Pelagianism

Introductory: the difficulties of the doctrine not faced in the earliest times
Different theories as to the origin of the Soul
Different conceptions of the Fall and its effects
The teaching of Augustine
Contrast between him and Pelagius
His doctrine of human nature, sin grace
His doctrine of freedom of will
Novel teaching on other points—predestination, reprobation
The opposition of Pelagius
His antecedents and the chief principles which controlled his thought and teaching
The Pelagian controversy—Coelestius
The first stage at Carthage—condemnation of Coelestius
The second stage in Palestine: attack on Pelagius and by Jerome and Orosius—acquittal by Palestinian bishops
The Third stage—appeal to Rome: condemnation of Pelagius and Coelestius by Innocent, followed by their acquittal by Zosimus
The Fourth stage—condemnation of all Pelagian theses by the Council of Carthage in 418, followed by imperial edicts against the Pelagians, and their final condemnation at Rome.
The ultimate issue of the controversy
Julian of Eclanum (note 53)
Attempts to mediate between the two extremes of Pelagianism and Augustinianism—Semi-Pelagianism and Augustinianism—Semi-Pelagianism
John Cassian—his teaching
Faustus of Lerinnum Rhegium
The later history of the doctrine

Chapter 18

The Doctrine of the Atonement

Different points of view, but no definite theory, early times
The Apostolic Fathers (Clement, Epistle of Barnabas, Hermas, Ignatius
Justin Martyr
The Writer to Diognetus
Irenaeus—doctrine of the Incarnation and theory of Satan’s dominion
Origen—Ransom to the devil
Other aspects of the Atonement
Gregory of Nyssa
Gregory of Nazianzus
Summary of the teaching of the Period
“Heretical” conceptions of the Atonement
The Doctrine of Merit (Tertullian and Cyprian)

Chapter 19

The Church

General conceptions (no thought-out doctrine till Cyprian)
A new spiritual society and organisation
One holy, catholic, apostolic:—these ‘notes’ implied from the first
‘Catholic’ (note 9)
Irenaeus—the Church as teacher
Tertullian’s conception
The commission to Peter (note 25)
Clement and Origen
Cyprian’s conception
The Episcopate (note 35)
Cyril of Jerusalem
The Penitential System
The Bishops as the centre of unity

Chapter 20

The Sacraments—Baptism

General Conception of a Sacrament—the use of the term
Early Conceptions of baptism: the names for it, the form, what it effected—The New Testament and later
Justin Martyr on baptism
The idea of water (note 20)
Cyril of Jerusalem (the rites and their significance)
Ambrose on baptism (his peculiar conceptions)
Martyrdom as baptism
Heretical Baptism
Baptism by layman
The Unction and Confirmation

Chapter 21

The Sacraments—The Eucharist

[The different theories which have been held in later times, namely:—
the ‘sacramentarian’ theory
the ‘receptionist’ theory
the Anglican statement of real presence]
The Eucharist at first connected with Agape
Early conceptions of the effect of consecration:—
the Dicache
the Christians of Bithynia
The Conception of the elements as symbols (only a distinction in thought)
The Conception of the Eucharist as a sacrifice
Clement of Alexandria (the Agape) and Origen
Cyril of Jerusalem
Eusebius and Athanasius (n0te)
Gregory of Nyssa (marked development of conceptions)
Ambrose and Augustine
Infant Communion
Death-bed Communion
Daily celebration of the Eucharist
Reservation of the Sacrament
Oblations for the dead
The Ancient Mysteries
The Eucharist as an extension of the Incarnation (Hilary)
The Eucharistic doctrine in the Early Liturgies