Epiphanius – Against all Heresies 74

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Against Pneumatomachi

1,1 A sort of monstrous, half-formed people with two natures, as the mythographers <described> the Centaurs, Pans and Sirens, have been born to these Semi-Arians and orthodox believers, and have risen up against us. (2) The Arians of them declare the Son is not fully a creature, but a Son begotten outside of time. But they say with a hint of time that he <has been in existence> from of old until now, and have thus by no means abandoned the formula originally spat out by Arius, which said that “There was a time when He was not” but that He “by whom things were made” was before all time”; and they blaspheme the Holy Spirit <by saying that the Spirit is a creature>. (3) Others hold the truly orthodox view of the Son, that he was forever with the Father and has never ceased to exist, but has been begotten4 without beginning and not in time. But all of these blaspheme the Holy Spirit, and do not count him in the Godhead with the Father and the Son.

1,4 I often have discussed this extensively, and have given an authentic proof, at considerable length, in every Sect, that he is to be called, “Lord,” with the Father and the Son. For the “Spirit of the Lord filleth the whole world”—the “Spirit of truth,” the Spirit of God. He is called the Spirit of the Lord, who “proceeds from the Father and receives of the Son,” “giveth gifts severally as he will,” “searcheth the deep things of God,” and is with the Father and the Son, baptizing, sealing, and perfecting him whom he has sealed. (5) But to avoid assuming a burden here, I shall offer, for the reader’s instruction and the enjoyment of those who have been vouchsafed the Holy Spirit, the things I have already said in opposition to the Spirit’s blasphemers in my long work on the faith, which I wrote [in the form of a letter] to Pamphylia. It is as follows:

Excerpt from the Ancoratus

2,1 “The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ hath appeared, teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, godly and righteously in this present world, looking for the blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Savior Jesus Christ; who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.”  (2) He “blotted out the handwriting of ordinances, which was against us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross; and having spoiled principalities and powers he made a show of them openly, triumphing over them in it.”  “He hath broken the gates of brass and burst the bars of iron in sunder.”  He made the light of life visible again, stretching forth his hand, showing the way, baring the foundations of heaven and demanding a dwelling place in Paradise once more. He therefore also caused “the righteousness of the Law”  “to dwell in us,”  (3) and has given us the Spirit, so that we may know him and the truth about him. That is, he has become the beginning and end of our life, our “law of righteous- ness,”  “law of faith,”  and “law of the Spirit,”  free from the “law of the flesh of sin.” 

2,4 Therefore “I delight in the law of God after the inward man.”  But our inward man is Christ, provided that he dwells in us. (5) For it is he who, by dying became our way to life “that they which live should not henceforth live unto themselves, but unto” the Cause of life, “who died for them, and rose again.”  “Mindful of the oath which,” as David said, “he swore many generations before”  “God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their transgressions unto them.” 

2,6 “For it pleased the Father than in him should all fullness dwell, and by him to reconcile all things unto himself, having made peace through the blood of the cross.”  (7) He came, then, “for the dispensation of the fullness of the times,” as he promised to Abraham and the other saints, “to gather in one all things in him, things which are in heaven and things which are on earth.”  (8) There was estrangement and enmity “during the [time of the] forbearance of God,”  but he “reconciled them in the body of his flesh, making both one through him. For he came to be our peace”  and “as he who broke down the middle wall of partition, who abolished enmity in his flesh, the law of commandments contained in ordinances, for to make the twain one new man in himself.”  And he commanded that the gentiles be “of the same body, and fellow partakers and fellow heirs of the promise”  by saying, “Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest.”  (9) And so “while I was weak, through the flesh,” a Savior was sent to me “in the likeness of sinful flesh,”  and performed this gracious work, to like drops watering the earth”; the wool will then increase the progeny of the fleece when it receives the dew. But when the earth receives the rain, since it receives it by the Lord’s command it will increase the fruit for which husbandmen hope, yielding its essence gladly, but in eagerness to receive more from him. (5) So, when the Virgin Mary asked, “How shall I know that this will be to me?”  she was told, “The Spirit of the Lord is upon thee, and the power of the highest shall overshadow thee. Therefore also that which shall be bom of thee shall be holy, and called, Son of the Most High.”

3,6 Christ speaks in the angel, and in his fashioning of himself the Lord refashions himself by “taking the form of a servant.”  And Mary absorbs the Word for conception as the earth absorbs the rain; but by taking mortal nature God’s Word makes himself a holy fruit. (7) He was [born] of her who absorbed him, like earth and fleece—the fruit of the true hope, awaited by the saints as Elizabeth said, “Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb.”  This [fruit] the Word received from humankind, and suffered although he was impassible. (8) He is the “living bread which came down from heaven”  and gives life. He is the fruit of the true olive, the oil of anointing and compounding which, as a type, Moses described. He is the “true vine”  which only the Father tends, who has produced a joyous vintage for us. (9) He is the “living water, after taking which <the> man that thirsteth shall not thirst again, but it is in his belly springing up into everlasting life.” 

The new husbandmen have taken of this water and given it to the world, while the old husbandmen have withered and perished from unbelief. (10) By his own blood he hallows the gentiles, but by his own Spirit he leads the called to the heavens. “As many as live by the Spirit of God, they live to God.”  Those who are not so led are still reckoned as dead, and these are called “natural” or “carnal.” (11) Christ commands us, then, to abandon the works of the flesh which are the strongholds of sin, to put to death the members of death by his grace, and to receive the Holy Spirit which we did not have—the Spirit who gives me life, though I am long dead and, unless I receive him, shall have died. For without his Spirit, all are dead. (12) “If, therefore, his Spirit be in us, he that raised him from the dead shall quicken our mortal bodies by his Spirit that dwelleth in us.”  In my opinion, however, both dwell in the righteous—Christ, and his Spirit.

4,1 If it is believed that Christ, as “God of God,” is of the Father, and his Spirit is of Christ or of both—as Christ says, “who proceedeth from the Father,”  and, “He shall receive of me”—and if it is believed that Christ is of the Holy Spirit—the angel’s words are, “That which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit”—[then] I know the Mystery that redeems me by faith, by hearing alone, by love for him who has come to me. (2) For God knows himself, Christ proclaims himself, the Holy Spirit reveals himself to the worthy.

4,2 A Trinity is proclaimed in the holy scriptures and is believed in with all seriousness, without contention, <by> the hearing of the creeds. From this faith comes salvation by grace—“righteousness is by faith without the works of the Law.” (3) <For> the scripture says that “the Spirit of Christ” is given to those who are saved “by the hearing of faith.”  (4) And in my opinion, as I am taught by the scriptures, the catholic faith is declared by the voices of its heralds to be as follows:

Three Holies, three of equal holiness; three Actuals, three of equal actuality; three Informed, three with the same form; three at work, three at one work; three Subsistents, three of the same subsistence, in co-existence. This is called a holy Trinity, one concord though they are three, one Godhead of the same essence, the same divinity, the same subsistence, like [generated] of like, resulting in the equality of the grace of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.

To teach the how of this is left to them. (5) “No man knoweth the Father save the Son; neither knoweth any man the Son, save the Father, and he to whom the Son will reveal him.”  But he reveals him through the Holy Spirit. (6) Thus, whether these Persons, who are three, are of him, from him, or with him is properly understood by each Person, just as they reveal themselves as light, fire, wind, and I believe with other visionary likenesses, as the man reporting them is worthy. (7) Thus the God who said “Let there be light” at the beginning “and there was” visible “light,” is the same God who has given us the light to see “the true light, which lighteneth every man that cometh into the world” —“Send forth thy light and thy truth,” says David—and the same Lord who said, “In the latter days I will pour out my Spirit upon all flesh, and their sons shall prophesy, and their daughters, and their young men shall see visions.” He has therefore shown us three Objects of sacred worship, of a triple subsistence.

3,1 “I say,” therefore, “that Christ was a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promises.” But I understand from the sacred scriptures that the Holy Spirit is his fellow minister, for the follow- ing reasons. Christ is sent from the Father; the Holy Spirit is sent. Christ speaks in the saints; the Holy Spirit speaks. Christ heals; the Holy Spirit heals. Christ hallows; the Holy Spirit hallows. Christ baptizes in his name; the Holy Spirit baptizes.

3,2 The scriptures say, “Thou shalt send forth thy Spirit, and thou shalt renew the face of the earth,” which is like saying “Thou shalt send forth thy Word and melt them.” (3) “As they ministered to the Lord and fasted,” says the scripture, “the Holy Spirit said, Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them.” This is like saying “The Lord said, Go into the city, and there it shall be told thee what thou must do.” (4) “So they, being sent forth by the Holy Spirit, departed unto Seleucia,”  is equivalent to Christ’s saying, “Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves.” (5) “It seemed good to the Holy Spirit to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things,” is equivalent to his saying, “I say, yet not I, but the Lord, Let the wife not depart from her husband.”

5,6 “Now when they had gone throughout Phrygia and the region of Galatia, and were forbidden of the Holy Spirit to preach the word in Asia, after they were come to Mysia they assayed to go into Bithynia: but the Spirit suf- fered them not,”  is equivalent to Christ’s saying, “Go, baptize all nations,”  <or>, “Carry neither scrip, nor staff, nor shoes.”  (7) “Who said to Paul through the Spirit that he should not go up to Jerusalem” —or Agabus’ prophecy, “Thus saith the Holy Spirit, The man that owneth this girdle— is like Paul’s saying, “since ye seek a proof of Christ speaking in me,” or, “Remember the words of the Lord, that he said, It is better to give than to receive.” 

5,8 [Paul’s], “And now, behold, I go bound in the Spirit”  is the equivalent of his, “Paul, a prisoner of Jesus Christ.” (9) “Save that the Holy Spirit witnesseth to me in every city,” is equivalent to saying “The Lord testifieth to my soul that I lie not.” (10) [To say], “with power according to the Spirit of holiness,”  is similar to saying, “Holy is he who rests in the saints.” (11) [To say], “And circumcision is that of the heart, in the Spirit,”  is similar to saying, “And ye are circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, in the putting off the body of the sins by the circumcision of Christ.”

5,12 [To say], “If so be that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you,”  is similar to saying, “As ye have received Christ, walk ye in him.” And [to say], “The Spirit of the Lord spake by me, and his word is in my mouth,”  (13) and “having the firstfruits of the Spirit,” is similar to saying, “Christ is the firstfruits.” (14) [To say], “But the Spirit himself maketh intercession for us,” is similar to saying “who is on the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us.” (15) [To say], “that the offering up of the gentiles may be acceptable, being sanctified by the Holy Spirit,” is similar to saying “Now the Lord sanctify you, that ye may be sincere and without offense at the day of Christ.” (16) [To say], “But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit,”  is similar to saying, “When it pleased God, who separated me from my mother’s womb and called me by his grace, to reveal his Son in me.”  (17) [To say], “Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit which is of God,” is similar to saying, “Prove your own selves whether Christ be in you.” (18) [To say], “Ye are the temple of God, and the Spirit of God dwelleth in you,” is similar to saying, “I will dwell in them and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.”

6,1 Paul says, moreover, that justification and grace come from both [the Son and the Holy Spirit]. [To say], “justified in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of our God” is similar to saying, “Being justified by faith we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ,” (2) and “No man can say that Jesus is Lord but by the Holy Spirit”; and no one can receive the Spirit except from the Lord. [To say], “There are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit; there are differences of administrations, but the same Lord; and there are diversities of operations, but it is the same God which worketh all in all,” “from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord,” (3) and “Grieve not the Holy Spirit, in whom ye are sealed unto the day of redemption,” is similar to saying, “Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? Are we stronger than he?”

6,4 [To say], “The Spirit speaketh expressly,” is like saying, “Thus saith the Lord, the almighty.” (5) To say, “The Spirit standeth within you,” <is like saying>, “If any man open to me, I and the Father will come in and make our abode with him.”

6,6 Isaiah said, “And the Spirit of the Lord is upon him,” but Christ said, “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me because he hath anointed me,” “Jesus of Nazareth, whom God anointed with the Holy Spirit,” or, “The Lord hath sent me, and his Spirit.” (7) And the voice of the seraphim, which cries, “Holy, Holy, Holy is the Lord of Sabaoth,” is an obvious example.

6,8 If you hear the words, “Being by the right hand of God exalted, having received of the Father the promise of the Spirit;” or “Wait for the promise of the Father, which ye have heard,” or “The Spirit driveth him into the wilderness;” or the words of Christ himself, “Take no thought what ye shall say, for it is the Spirit of my Father that speaketh in you,” or “If I cast out devils by the Spirit of God,” or “He that shall blaspheme against the Holy Spirit hath never forgiveness,” and so on—or “Father, into thy hands I shall commend my Spirit,” or “The child grew and waxed strong in the Spirit,” or “Jesus, being full of the Holy Spirit, returned from Jordan”, or “Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit,” or “That which is born of the Spirit is spirit;” [any of this] is like saying, “That which was made, in him was life,” or “And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, the Spirit of truth.” “Why hath Satan filled thine heart to lie to the Holy Spirit?” as Peter said to Ananias, and further on, “Thou hast not lied unto men, but unto God.” In other words the Holy Spirit, to whom they lied by keeping part of the price of their land, is God of God, and is God, or “God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit” —(9) I cannot give a better argument than this.

The Son is God: the scripture says, “Of whom, as concerning the flesh, Christ came, who is over all God;” “Believe on the Lord Jesus, and thou shalt be saved,” “He spake unto them the word of the Lord,” and “When he had brought them into his house he set meat before them, and rejoiced, believing in God with all his house”—or, “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God,” or “The grace of our God and Savior hath appeared unto all men, teaching us,” or “that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Savior in all things,” or “looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Savior Jesus Christ.”

6,10 But the service of the Spirit, and the service of the Word, is the same. [To say], “Take heed unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Spirit hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God,” is similar to saying, “I thank Christ Jesus our Lord, who hath enabled me, for that he counted me faithful, putting me into the ministry.”

7,1 As we have shown, the Son and the Holy Spirit work in cooperation with the Father: “By the Word of the Lord were the heavens established, and all the host of them by the Spirit of his mouth.” The Holy Spirit is an object of worship: “They that worship God must worship him in Spirit and in truth.” (2) But if the Spirit cooperates in the making of these things, a creature cannot make a creature; and the Godhead does not become a creature and is not known as God in some limited or circumscribed sense. For the Godhead is boundless, infinite and incomprehensible, and surpasses all that God has made. (3) Nor can a creature be an object of worship: “They worshiped the creature rather than the creator, and were made fools.” How can it not be foolish to make a god of a creature and break the first commandment, which says, “Hear, O Israel, the Lord thy God is one Lord,” “There shall no strange god be in thee.”

7,4 However, in the sacred scriptures there are various names for the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. The Father’s names are, “Father Almighty,” “Father of all,” “Father of Christ.” The Son’s are, “Word,” “Christ,” “true Light;” and the Holy Spirit’s are, “Paraclete,” “Spirit of truth, “ “Spirit of God,” “Spirit of Christ.” (5) Further, our God and Father is regarded as light—indeed, as brighter than light, power, wisdom. But if our God and Father is light, the Son is light of light and thus “dwelleth in light which no man can approach unto.” (6) But God is all power, and thus <the Son> is “Lord of powers.” God is all wisdom, and the Son is therefore wisdom of wisdom, “in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom.” God is all life, and the Son is thus life of life, for “I am the truth and the life.”

7,7 But the Holy Spirit is of both, as spirit of spirit. For “God is spirit,” but God’s Spirit is the giver of spiritual gifts, utterly true, enlightener, Paraclete, conveyor of the Father’s counsels. (8) For as the Son is “angel of a great counsel,” so is the Holy Spirit. Scripture says, “Now we have received the Spirit of God, that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God. Which things also we speak, not with the persuasion of words of wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit of God, comparing spiritual things with spiritual.”

8,1 But someone will say, “Then are we talking about two Sons? Why “Only-begotten?” “Nay, but who art thou that reckonest contrary to God?” If God calls the One who is of him, the Son, and the One who is of Both, the Holy Spirit—things which are understood by the saints alone, by faith, which are light, which give light, which have the power to enlighten, and create a harmony of light with the Father himself (2)—[if this is so], Sir, hear with faith that the Father is the Father of a true Son and is all light, and that <the> Son is the <Son> of a true Father and is light of light, [and] not merely in name, as artifacts or created things are. And the Holy Spirit is the Spirit of truth, a third light, from the Father and the Son.

8,3 But all the other [“sons” and “spirits”] are such by adoption or in name, and are not [sons or spirits] like these, in actuality, power, light or meaning or, as one might say, “I have begotten sons and raised them up,” “I have said, Ye are gods and ye are all children of the Most High,”  “Who hath begotten drops of dew,”  “of whom [is] the whole family in heaven and earth,” or “I that establish thunder and create spirit.” (4) For the true Father has not begun to be a father [at some particular time], like the other fathers or patriarchs; nor does he ever cease to be a father. For if he begins to be a father he was at one time the son of another father, before being the Father of an Only-begotten himself. But fathers are presumed to be children in the likeness of their fathers, and the finding of the true father of this ancient history is an endless process.

8,5 Nor is the true Son new at being a son, like the others, who are children by adoption. For if he is new at being a son, there was a time when the Father was not the Father of an Only-begotten.

8,6 And the Spirit of truth is not created or made, like the other spirits, or called “the angel of the great counsel” in the same sense as the other “angels.” (7) Some things have a beginning and an end, but others have rule, (i.e., ἀρχή playing on “beginning”) and might of an inconceivable kind. Some create all things for endless ages, in cooperation with the Father; others are created by these, as they will. Some worship the creators; others are fit for worship by all creatures. Some heal created things; others receive healing from the former. (8) Some are judged in accordance with their deserts; others have the power of righteous judgment. And some things are <in> time; others are not in time. Some illumine all; others are illumined by them. Some summon babes to the height; others are summoned by Him who is Mature. Some grant favors to all; others receive favors. And in a word, some hymn the Holiness in the heavens of heavens and the other invisible realms; others are hymned, and bestow their gifts on the worthy.

9,1 But the scripture speaks of a great many spirits. [It says], “who maketh his angels spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire,” and “Praise the Lord, all ye spirits.” (2) The gift of “discernment of spirits” is given to the worthy. Some spirits are heavenly and “rejoice in the truth”; some are of the earth and apt at deceit and error. Some are subterrestrial, children of the abyss and darkness. For the Gospel says, “They besought him that he would not send them away to go out into the abyss,” and he accordingly gave the spirits this command. And he cast out spirits with a word and “suffered them not to speak.”

9,3 We are told of “a spirit of judgment and a spirit of burning.” We are also told of a spirit of the world—“We have not received the spirit of the world,” says scripture—and a spirit of man: “What man knoweth the things of a man save the spirit of man which is in him?” [We are told of ] “a spirit that passeth away and cometh not again,” “for the spirit hath passed through him and he shall not be,” and “Thou shall take away their spirits and they shall perish.”

9,4 And “Spirits of prophets are subject to prophets,”  and “Behold, a lying spirit stood before the Lord, and he said unto him, Wherewith shalt thou deceive Ahab? And he said, I will be a lying spirit in the mouth of the prophets.” 

9,5 We are told of a “spirit of compunction,” a “spirit of fear,” a “spirit of divination,” a “spirit of fornication,” a “spirit of tempest,” a “talkative spirit,” a “spirit of infirmity,” an “unclean spirit,” a “deaf and dumb spirit,” a “spirit with an impediment in its speech,” a “spirit exceeding fierce, which is called Legion,” and the “spiritual forces of wickedness.” There is no end to what is said about spirits by the wise.

9,6 But just as most “sons” are sons by adoption or in name but not actual sons, since they have beginnings and ends and <were conceived> in sin, so most spirits are spirits by adoption or in name—even though they are sinful. Only the Holy Spirit, however, is called the “Spirit of truth, “ “Spirit of God,” “Spirit of Christ” and “Spirit of grace” by the Father and the Son. (7) For he graciously gives good to each in various ways—“to one a spirit of wisdom, to another a spirit of knowledge, to another a spirit of might, to another a spirit of healings, to another a spirit of prophecy, to another a spirit of discernment, to another a spirit of tongues, to another a spirit of interpretations,”  and as the scripture says, “One and the selfsame Spirit” [grants] the rest of the gracious gifts, “dividing to every man severally as he will.” (8) For as David says, “Thy good Spirit, O God, will guide me,” or “The Spirit doth breathe where he will”—with words like these he has shown us the Holy Spirit’s reality—“and thou hearest his voice, but canst not tell whence he cometh or whither he goeth.” And the words, “except ye be born of water and the Spirit” are similar to Paul’s, “In Christ Jesus I begot you.”

9,9 Of the Holy Spirit, the Lord said, “When the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me,” and “I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. When he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he shall guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself, but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak, and he will show you things to come. He shall glorify me, for he shall receive of mine and shall show it unto you.”

10,1 Now if the Spirit proceeds from the Father and, as the Lord says, is to receive “of mine,” (2) I will venture to say that, just as “No man knoweth the Father save the Son, nor the Son save the Father,” so no one knows the Spirit except the Son from whom he receives and the Father from whom he proceeds. And no one knows the Son and the Father except the Holy Spirit who truly glorifies them, who teaches all things, who testifies of the Son, is from the Father, is of the Son, is the only guide to truth, the expounder of holy laws, instructor in the spiritual law, preceptor of the prophets, teacher of the apostles, enlightener with the doctrines of the Gospels, elector of the saints, true light of true light.

10,3 The Son is a real Son, a true Son, a legitimate Son, the unique Son of a unique Father. With him also is the Spirit—<not a Son>, but termed, “Spirit.” (4) This is the God who is glorified in the church: Father forever, Son forever, Holy Spirit forever; Sublime <of> Sublime, and the Most High; spiritual, of glory unbounded; the One to whom all that is created and made—in a word, the universe with its measurements and each thing that is contained—is inferior.

10,5 The Godhead is chiefly declared to be a unity in the Law of Moses, but is vehemently proclaimed a duality in the prophets, and is revealed as a Trinity in the Gospels, for over the times and generations it accords more closely with the righteous in knowledge and faith. And this knowledge is immortality, and adoption is by faith in it. (6) But as though it were erecting the temple’s outer wall in the Law of Moses, it gives the ordinances of the flesh first of all. It expounds the ordinances of the soul second, as though it were putting the sacred objects in place in the remaining prophets. But third it gives the ordinances of the spirit, as though, in the Gospels, arranging the mercy seat and Holy of Holies for its dwelling, but as its holy tabernacle a holy people <who> have none but the righteous as their companions.

10,7 In this people there dwells one infinite Godhead, one imperishable Godhead, one incomprehensible Godhead, unfathomable, inexpressible, invisible. It alone knows itself; it reveals itself to whom it will. It raises up its witnesses, calls, predestines and glorifies them, lifts them up from hades, hallows them. (8) For its own glory and faith it makes these three one: things in heaven, on earth, and under the earth; spirit, soul and flesh; faith, hope and charity; past, present and future; the ages, the eternal ages, and the ages of ages; Sabbaths of Sabbaths; the circumcision of the flesh, the circumcision of the heart, and “the circumcision of Christ by the putting off of the body of the sins.” (9) In a word, it purifies all things for itself, things visible and invisible, thrones, dominions, principalities authorities, powers. But in all is the same holy voice crying, “Holy, Holy, Holy,” from glory to glory, <to glorify> the Father in the Son, and the Son in the Father with the Holy Spirit, to whom be glory and might unto the ages of ages. Amen. And he who so believes will say “So be it! So be it.”

The End of the Material <from> the Ancoratus

11,1 And these are the things which I have already written, with my extremely limited ability, in explanation of the faith in the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, and have cited in the preceding paragraphs. But as a testimony to my own salvation I shall continue with the godly citation of texts, and the godly discussion, based on right reason, of the Godhead.

11,2 [It is plain] that the Only-begotten has been shown by many testimonies in the previous discussion to act in concert with the Father, and to do the same things in all respects and grant the same graces, since he is “of the Father,” and is not different from the Father’s power and Godhead, but is co-essential with the Father. And not only the Son—the Holy Spirit has been shown to act in concert with the Son and the Father, to do the same things, and to give and grant the same graces as he will, since he too is truly “of God,” and not different from the Father and the Son, but co- essential with the Father and the Son. This is plain to everyone, and has been and will be entirely proven by such a large number of texts.

However, because of the Holy Spirit’s opponents and enemies I shall present the godly conclusions from right reason, and the arguments from texts in the same sacred scripture, that concern only the Holy Spirit, and present them in addition to the other texts, in accordance with the true godly doctrine of the Holy Spirit. (4) For as is the truth, the Holy Spirit too is unique, is worshiped by all, is beloved by all things created and made, and is not to be equated with anything—no angel, no spirit—but is one of a kind. (5) For there are indeed many spirits, but since the Holy Spirit is eternally of the Father, and is not engendered by other beings, which were made from nothing, this Spirit is high above all spirits. As there is one God, and one only-begotten Son of God, so there is <one> Holy Spirit of God, but of God and in God.

11,6 But the only-begotten Son is incomprehensible, and the Spirit is incomprehensible; however, he is of God, and is not different from the Father and the Son. He is not an identity with the Father and the Son; there is an eternal Trinity of the same essence, not an essence other than the Godhead and not a Godhead other than the essence, but the same Godhead. And of the same Godhead are the Son and the Holy Spirit. (7) And the Spirit is a holy spirit, but the Son is a son. The Spirit proceeds from the Father and receives of the Son, “searcheth the deep things of God,” “sheweth” the things of the Son to the world, and hallows the saints through the Trinity. He is third in the enumeration [of the Trinity]—the Trinity is the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, for scripture says, “Go baptize in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.” He is the confirmation of the grace (i.e., of baptism), the seal of the Trinity, not apart from the numeration, not different from its naming, and not other than its gift—but there is one God, one faith, one Lord, one gift, one church, one baptism.

12,1 For, as I have often said, the Trinity is forever a Trinity, and never receives an addition. It is sweet to confess this faith, and one never tires of saying it; for the prophet says, “Sweet are thy words unto my throat.” (2) And if the words are sweet, how much sweeter is the holy name, “Trinity,” the fount of all sweetness? This, then, is the enumeration of the Trinity: “Father, Son and Holy Spirit.” (3) The Trinity is not an identity and cannot be separated from its oneness, and yet the Father is perfect in the subsistence of perfection, the Son is perfect, the Holy Spirit is perfect— Father, Son and Holy Spirit (4) Conversely, the Holy Spirit is enumerated among the spiritual gifts: “For there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit, and there are differences of administrations, but the same Lord, and there are diversities of operations, but it is the same God that worketh all in all.”

12,5 And since such is the case, let us make sure not to be deprived of the truth, but let us confess the truth instead—not to plead for God, but to think of him piously, lest we perish. To say or think that there is any created thing in the Trinity, or anything added to it, is unacceptable; the Trinity was always the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit.

12,6 The Son is neither the Father’s kinsman nor identical with him, and the Spirit is neither identical with nor the kinsman of the Father and the Son. (7) The Son is begotten of the Father and the Spirit proceeds from the Father, though in some ineffable way the Trinity exists in an identity of its glory and is incomprehensibly a Son, and likewise a Holy Spirit, with a Father; nor does the Trinity ever cease from the same eternity. (8) The Father, then, is forever ingenerate, uncreated and incomprehensible. The Son is begotten, but uncreated and incomprehensible. The Holy Spirit is eternally—not generate, not created, not a kinsman, not an ancestor, not an offspring, but a Holy Spirit of the same essence as the Father and the Son, “For God is spirit.”

13,1 In every scripture there are testimonies to our salvation, in all its sureness. I shall cite as few as I can of the many [there are], in order, even at this stage, not to leave the exposition without a witness to the Holy Spirit. (2) For example, to declare to all the faithful, for their salvation, the genuineness of his Holy Spirit, the Father says of the Son’s human nature, “I shall put my Spirit upon him, and he shall proclaim judgment to the gentiles.” (3) Then, by his own testimony, the Only-begotten adds, ‘The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me”—a plain acknowledgment, by Christ’s testimony, that his human nature is certified and proclaimed to the faithful by the Holy Spirit, for the Spirit is not different from God.

13,4 But again, the Lord says of the Spirit, “It is the Spirit of my Father that speaketh in you.” And again, since the Spirit is not different from the Father’s divinity, “He breathed in the faces of the disciples and said, Receive ye the Holy Spirit.” And again, to show his equality and co-essentiality, and his Father’s, with the Holy Spirit, he said, “If ye love me, keep my commandments. And I shall pray the Father, and he will give you another advocate”—since the Lord himself is an advocate, and the Holy Spirit likewise is his fellow advocate.

13,5 And to show that the Spirit is not a servant, but is of the same Godhead [as the Son], the apostles gave intimation of his authority by say- ing, “And the Holy Spirit said, Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them,” and so on. (6) But Paul says plainly of him, “The Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty,” and, “Ye are the temple of God, and the Spirit of the Lord dwelleth in you.” (7) Now if we are called God’s temple because of the Holy Spirit’s indwelling, who would dare to reject the Spirit and separate him from the essence of God—when the apostle plainly says that we become God’s temples because of the Holy Spirit who dwells in the worthy? And how can the Spirit who “searcheth the deep things of God” be different from God?

And don’t tell me, (8) “He searches, but he doesn’t know yet,” as some dare to blaspheme him to their own destruction. [If this were so] they should say <the> same of the Father, for even of him scripture says, “He searcheth the treasuries of the belly.” (9) And if you intend to take an impious view [of the Spirit] because knowledge does not follow search- ing in the Spirit’s case, you must speak impiously of the Father too, and be compelled to express the same wrong notion. No “knowing” is added to “The Father searcheth the treasuries of the belly”—there would be no need to say it—since God’s foreknowledge is made plainly evident, <and> fully expressed, by the word, “search.” So please <understand> the one knowledge and foreknowledge in the Spirit, the Son and the Father, since the Holy Trinity is plainly perfect and identical.

14,1 An untold amount could be said about this, and it would be possible to cite a mass of texts from sacred scripture, and drag them out at length and burden the readers. (2) For by speaking at length in every Sect I, despite my weakness, have sufficiently refuted them all by the power of God, and have shown that all sects are strangers to the truth, and that each of them blasphemes and denies the truth, whether in a minor or in a major matter.

So with these people < who > blaspheme the Lord and the Holy Spirit to no purpose and, as the Lord has said, have no “remission” of sins “here or in the world to come” because of their blasphemy of the Holy Spirit— and who have been trodden underfoot by the truth itself, (3) like a dreadful horned asp with its single horn, since the blasphemous mind is capable of destroying the entire body. And they have been struck by the preaching of the cross and the true confession of the Only-begotten—for, as I said, for a blasphemer of the Holy Spirit “There shall be no forgiveness either in this world or in the world to come”—and have been trodden on and crushed; for they cannot prevail against the truth.

14,4 All the sects are truly “gates of hell,” but “They will not prevail against the rock,” that is, against the truth. For even though some of them choose to say, “We too profess the creed that was issued at Nicaea; show me from it that the Holy Spirit is counted as divine,” they will find them- selves confounded even by this. (5) The dispute then was not about the Holy Spirit. The councils make sure of the matter that arises at a particular time. Since Arius was directing the insult at the Son, there was accuracy of language about him, with additional discussion. (6) But observe from the creed itself that there is no way in which the blasphemers of the Spirit, the Pneumatomachi who are strangers to his gift and sanctification, can make their point here either. (7) The creed at once confesses, and does not deny, “We believe in one God, the Father Almighty.” But “We believe” is not left at that. The faith is in God “and in one Lord Jesus Christ.” <And> this is not left at that. The faith is in God “and in the Holy Spirit.” (8) And all this is not left at that. The three “We believes” make it evident that the faith is in one glory, one unity and one co-essentiality—three Perfects but one Godhead, one essence, one glory, one dominion. And here too their argument has failed.

14,9 And how long am I to go on? I believe that what I have said against them will suffice for those who love the truth. I shall therefore pass this sect by too, beseeching God to aid me as usual in the refutation of them all, so that, by his power, I may keep my promise and give him thanks in every way.