Chapter 6 The Eternal Spirit Footnotes 90-131

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The Trinitarian Faith

“The Nicene theologians could not forget the word of the Lord Jesus which resounded throughout the early Church that, while evil-speaking against himself may be forgiven, blasphemy against the Holy Spirit will never be forgiven. This had the effect of reinforcing in the Church veneration, adoration, and worship of the Spirit as very God, God in his unlimited Godness and majesty, God in his utter holiness, sublimity and lordship. Of one and the same being with the Father and the Son, the Holy Spirit is to be worshipped and glorified together with the Father and the Son, and to be confessed as God. Hence the place of the Trisagion  in the Christian liturgy directed to the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, echoing within the praises of the Church on earth the ceaseless hymn of angels and seraphim around the throne above.”

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90. Basil, Ep., 234.1; cf. 235.2; 236.1ffCon Eun., 2.32

91. Thus Didymus, De Sp. St., 23ff, 60f; De Trin., 2.6.7, could speak of the indwelling presence of the Holy Spirit as the presence of God secundum substantium, and not merely secundum opertaitionem. Contrast Basil Ep., 234.1-3; 235.2fCon Eun., 1.14, 23; 2.32De obs se, 7, Athens ed., 54, p. 36 (N/A); cf. Gregory Naz., Or., 38.7, Athanasius, De decr., 11, cannot be understood in this way. See further Theol. in Reconc., pp. 210, 213ffTheol. in Reconc., pp. 235f; and E. L. Mascall, Existence and Analogy, 1949, pp. 148ff.

92. Matt. 12.31f; Mark 3.28fLuke 12.10

See Athanasius, Con Ar., 1.50Ad Jov., 1Ad Afr., 11Ad Ser., 1.1f; 3.7, 3.8ff, 16ff, Athens ed., 33, p. 139f, 143ff (N/A); Basil De Sp St 46, 70 75Hom 111.5ff; Con Eun., 2.33Or. 35; Ep., 152.3 (typo? maybe 159.2); 188.1; 251.4; Gregory Nyss., De Sp. St., Jaeger, 3.1, p. 106f; Gregory Naz., Or. 31.30; Didymus De Trin., 2.26; 3.2.54; 3.40; De Sp. St., 1, 63; Con Eun., Athens ed., 44, p. 259; Amphilochius, Con haer., 17; Ep. syn., 4; Epiphanius Anc., 69, 116Haer., 54.2; 74.6, 14; Cyril of Jer., Cat., 4.16; 5.5; 16.1, 6, etc.

93. Athanasius Ad Jov., 4Ad Ser., 1.31; Basil De Sp. St., 3, 26, 64, 73Ep., 90.2; 159.2; 258.2; Gregory Naz., Or., 31.12, 28; Gregory Nyss., De Sp. St. Jaeger, 3.1., pp. 92ff, 108ff; Ep., 24. Amphilochius, MPG, 39.97B; Didymus, De Trin., 2.21f; Con Eun., Athens ed., 44, pp. 245, 247; Epiphanius Anc., 70, 117, 119Haer., 70.6; Cyril of Jer., Cat., 4.16; 16.1ff.

94. Apost. Const., 8.12; Serapion Euch 13, Athens ed., 43, p. 76; Basil Lit., Athens ed., 56, p. 28f (cf Brightman, op cit., p. 402); De Sp St., 38; Gregory Nyss., Con Eun., 1.23; Athanasius In ill. om., 6; Epiphanius, Haer 76Ref. Aet 10Anc., 9, 26, 69; Didymus De Trin., 2.7, 19; Cyril of Jer., Cat., 23.6; Gregory Naz., Or., 34.13; 38.8 & 45.4: ‘This then is the Holy of Holies, completely veiled by the seraphim, and glorified with a thrice repeated ‘holy’ joined together in one ascription of Lordship and Deity.’ Cited by John of Damascus, De fide, 3.10. Cf. also the discussion of Isaiah’s version, 6.1, in Ps Athanasius, De Trin, et Sp. St., 16 and De inc et con Ar., 10

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95. Basil De Sp. St., 44, 53. Cf. 22, ‘His proper and peculiar title is “Holy Spirit,”which is a name specially appropriate to everything that is incorporeal, purely immaterial and indivisible.’

96. Epiphanius, Haer., 73.16, 25; 74.10ffAnc., 8, 72ff.

97. Epiphanius Haer., 73.17; 74.7 – the corresponding passage in Anc 70 however, reads Πνεῦμα ἐκ Πατρός etc.

98. See Didymus De Trin., 3.36ff., Epiphanius, Anc., 6f, 10f, 67f, 73; Cyril of Jer., Cat., 16.3, 5, 13, 24.

99. John 14.16f, 25f; 15.26f, 16.13f. See Athanasius, Ad Ser., 1.20; 3.1Con Ar., 1.15; 3.44; Hilary De Trin., 7.20; 8.20; Didymus, De Sp. St. 30-38; Cyril of Jer., Cat., 16.14; Epiphanius Haer., 48.12; 62.4, 7; 69.18, 34; 74.1, 4, 6, 9ff; 76.4, 7Anc., 6ff, 11, 73, 120; Gregory De Sp St., Jaeger, 3.1, p. 108, etc.

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100.John 14.7. Cf. A. I. C. Heron, op. cit., p. 56: ‘The Spirit mirrors Christ himself, but to the “world” the mirror conveys no image.’

101. Thus Cyril of Alex., Thes., 34.

102. Ps. Athanasius/Basil Con. Sab., 12; Cf. Gregory of Nyssa., De Trin., Jaeger, 3.1, p. 13.

103. See Gregory/Basil Ep., 38.4

104. Basil De Sp. St., 47: “No one knows the Father but the Son” (Matt 11.27). And “no man can say that Jesus is Lord but in the Holy Spirit” (1Cor. 12.3) For it is not said through the Spirit but in the Spirit, and “God is Spirit, (4.24), as it is written “in their light we shall see light” (Ps. 36.9), namely by the illumination of the Spirit, “the true light that enlightens every that comes into the world” (John 1.9).

105. Cf. Basil, De Sp. St., 22f; 46f.

106. Basil Ep., 236. Also De Sp. St., 64; ‘It is impossible to see the image of the invisible God, except in the illumination of the Spirit. And in directing our gaze upon the image, we cannot sever the light from the image, for that which causes our seeing is necessarily seen with what is seen. Thus rightly and appropriately it is through the shining of the Spirit that we see the brightness of God’s glory, and through the express Image are led up to him of whom he is the express Image and the exact Seal.

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107. Athanasius Ad Ser., 1.30  & 1.19

108. Gregory Naz., Or., 40.1. See also Or., 39.1; Ps Gregory Naz., Ep., 243; Gregory Nyss., De Sp. St., Jaeger 3.1, p. 108f; Epiphanius, Haer., 69.33; 70.5; 74.7f, 10Anc., 61; Didymus, Con Eun., Athens ed., 44, p. 255f.

109. Didymus De Trin., 2.36; and Cyril of Alex., In Jn., 15.1

110. Athanasius, Ad Ser., 1.17. Hence the inherent difficulty we have in formulating a doctrine of the Spirit, for the Holy Spirit is God of God present to us in his mode of being as Spirit and thus precisely as the unknowable. See ‘The Epistemological Relevance of the Spirit,’ God and Rationalitypp. 165-192.

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111. Basil Ep., 235.2: ‘We confess that we know what is knowable of God, and yet what we know reaches beyond our comprehension.’

112. Basil De Sp. St., 47.

113. Athanasius Ad Ser., 1.14, 19, 21, 30f; 4.4

114. Athanasius Ad Ser., 1.14

115. Athanasius Ad Ser., 1.19ff, 27f, 30f; 3.5; Didymus, De Sp. St., 34-39; De Trin., 2.1; Basil Con Eun., 3.4; Gregory/Basil, Ep., 189.6f; Gregory Nyss., non tres die, Jaeger vol. 3.1 pp. 47, 55f; cf. Ex comm. not., Jaeger, 3.1, pp. 3f; De Sp. St., Jaeger, 3.1, pp. 97-100, 105ff, 109; Gregory Naz., Or., 31.6, 16.

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116. 1Cor. 2.10f This passage had a powerful influence on Nicene theology – see Athanasius, In Ill. om., 1Exp. fidei, 2Ad Ser., 1.6, 15, 22, 26; 3.1; 4.1; Basil, De Sp. St., 10, 38, 40, 50Con Eun., 1.14; Gregory Nyssa Con Eun., 2, Jaeger, 1, pp. 289, 340; 3, 1, II, p. 160; Gregory Naz., Or., 28.6; 30.15; 40.9; 43.65; Amphilochius Fr., 5; Cyril of Jer., Cat., 4.16; 6.6; 11.13; 16.23; Didymus, Con. Man. 40; De Trin., 1.9, 15; 2.2f, 5, 6.14f, 7.8; 3.37; De Sp. St., 15, 31, 40, 54f; Con Eun., Athens ed., pp. 232, 251f, 255, 266; Epiphanius Anc., 7, 12, 15f, 68, 117Haer., 74.1, 5, 11, 13; 76.29.

117. Epiphanius Anc., 73; cf. 15f (16); Haer., 74.1o, 76Ref. Aet., 29 (76).

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118. See again Athanasius, Con Ar., 1.9, 46; 3.1-6De syn., 41-53Ad Ser., 1.27; 2.2, 5.

119. Athanasius Ad Ser., 1.25-33; 3.1.

120. Epiphanius Anc., 6.

121. Athanasius Ad Ser., 1.2, 9-10.

122. Athanasius Ad Ser., 1.28

123. Athanasius Ad Ser., 1.30

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124. See especially Eunomius, Apologia 1 of 360, MPG, 30.835ff, and Apologia 2 of 378, preserved in the Con Eun., of Gregory Nyss., Jaeger, 1 & 2.

125. Athanasius, Ad Ant., 5-6

126. See Theol. in Reconc., pp. 242f. Thus also Gregory Naz., Or., 31.11: ‘God is three “Properties,” “Hypostases,” or “Persons” – call them what you will, we will not quarrel over names as long as they intend the same thing – that is Godhead.’ And 43.68: ‘Salvation lies not in terms but in the reality they express.’

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127. Basil Con Eun., 1-3, Athens ed., 52, pp. 157-227; Antir., pp. 143-156; Gregory Nyss. Con Eun., Jaeger, 1 & 2. See also Didymus, Con Eun. (Ps. Basil, Con Eun., 4-5), Athens ed., 44, pp. 223-261.

128. Basil Ep., 231

129. Basil, De Sp. St., 16f, 37, 41-47Ep., 159; 189.5-8

130. Basil De Sp. St., 46Con Sab., 6. Cf. Gregory Nyss., Con Eun., 1, Jaeger, 1, p. 89; non tres dei, 3.1, p. 56.

131. Eg., Basil Hex., 2.6.