Chapter 6 The Eternal Spirit Footnotes 46-89

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The Trinitarian Faith

“It was clear to these theologians, however, that it is only in and through the Son, the one and only Son, that the εἶδος of Godhead is made known, for it is specifically in Jesus Christ, the incarnate Son, that God has communicated himself to us creaturely human beings within the conditions and structures of our earthly existence and knowledge. Thus it is only in him who is both ὁμοούσιος with the Father and ὁμοούσιος with us, that we may really know God as he is in himself and in accordance with his nature. But it is on that ground, the same ground where we know the Father through the Son, that we may also know the Spirit, for it is in the Spirit sent to us by the Father through the Son that knowledge of God is mediated and actualised within us. Thus knowledge of the Spirit as well as of the Father is taken from and is controlled by knowledge of the Son. The Holy Spirit does not bring to us any independent knowledge of God, or add any new content to God’s self-revelation. He comes to us as the Spirit of the Father and of the Son, revealing the Father in the Son and the Son in the Father, and thus as himself God through whom God reveals himself. ‘The holy and blessed Trinity is indivisible and one in himself. When mention is made of the Father, there is included also his Word, and the Spirit who is in the Son, and the Spirit is not outside the Word.”

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46. Evagrius/Basil Ep., 8.10f.

47. Gregory Naz., Or., 31.10

48. Epiphanius, Anc., 6, 74, 120 (rough translation from German here); Haer., 73.34f; 74.12; 76.11, 16

49. Athanasius, Ad Ser., 1.33

50. Thus Didymus, De Trin., (Greek/Latin only) 1.17f; 1.34; 1.36; 2.1; 2.4; 2.6.9; 2.14; 2.18De Sp. St., 7 (23); Basil De Fide, 4 (N/A); Amphilochius, Frag., 13, MPG, 39.111; Epiphanius, Anc., 2, 5-7, 74Haer., 57.4; 72.1; 74.14; 86.16 (N/A); Exp. fidei, 14; Theodoret, Hist. eccl., 5.9-11; Cyril of Jer., Ep. ad Const., 8 (N/A); Ps. Macarius, Hom., 17.15.

51. Epiphanius, Haer., 73.15; 74.4ff, 10, 13f; 76. Ref. Aet., 7, 29; 86.32 (N/A); Anc., 19, 67ff, 72f (N/A).

52 See Theol. in Reconstr., p. 213fGod and Rationality, 165ff.

53. Athanasius, Ad Ser., 3.1ff

54. Athanasius, Ad Ser., 1.14.

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55. Basil, De Sp. St., 45; cf. Hex., 2.6, and Ep., 243, where Basil refers to the Holy Spirit as συμπληρωτικὸν τῆς Ἀγίας Τριάδος and κοινωνὸν τῆς θείας καὶ μακαρίας φύσεως and to Athanasius, Ad Ser., 1.25

56. Epiphanius, Anc., 119-120; cf. also Anc., 2-11, 67Exp. fidei, 14ff. Compared with these formulations, the credal statements of Cyril of Jerusalem, to which some scholars trace the Creed of Constantinople, are relatively slight, But refer to the long discussion by J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Creeds, 1950, pp. 297ff, 338ff.

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57. Compare the Athanasian Tomus ad Antiochenosemanating from the Council of Alexandria in 362, and the synodal letter from the Council of Constantinople in 382 ap. Theodoret, Hist. eccl., 5.9; and see H. B Swete, The Holy Spirit in the Ancient Church, pp. 210-229.

58. Athanasius, Con Ar., 3.15, 24Ad Serap., 1.11-14, 17, 22, 24-28; 3.1-5; 4.3, 6fAd Jov., 1-4Ad Afr., 11.

59. Eg., Isaiah 31.3; 51.11

60. Psalm 104.29-30 

61. John 4.24 

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62. See Origen De princ., 1.1-4; Eusebius De eccl. theol., 3.5; Gregory Nyss. Ant. con Eun., Jaeger, vol. 2, p. 389 (N/A); Cyril of Jer., Cat. 11.5ff; 17.34; Epiphanius, Haer., 73.16-18; 74.7Anc., 70; Didymus De Trin., 2.5 (Greek/Latin only).

63. Epiphanius Haer., 70.5

64. See Athenagoras, Leg. 10; Theophilus Ad Aut., 2.10; Tertullian, Adv. Prax., 26fApol., 23; Adamantius, Dial., 5.11 (N/A); Hilary, De Trin., 2.24, 26; 8.23f; 9.3, 14; Gregory Naz., Or., 38.13Ep., 101; Amphilochius, ap. Theodoret, Dial., 1 MPG, 83.99, etc.

65. Gregory Naz., Or., 10.4; 30.21; See also Athanasius, Con Ar., 1.46; 4.36; Con Apol., 2.3.

66. Epiphanius, Anc., 73 (N/A); Haer., 62.1ff; 69.53; 74.10.

67. Athanasius, Ad Ser., 1.4-7; see Cyril of Jer., Cat., 16.3; 17.4.

68. Athanasius, Ad Ser., 1.14, 20, 27f, 30f; 3.5f; 4.7Con Ar., 3.15, etc. Cf. Basil, Hom 111.4-6 (N/A).

69. For this concept of co-inherence see Hilary, De Trin., 3.1-4.

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70. Eusebius, Hist. eccl., 3.5; Athanasius Con Ar., 2.33, 41; 3.1-6Dec dec., 26Ad Ser., 1.26; Cyril of Jerusalem Cat., 17.34; Basil De Sp. St., 9.22, 25, 53; Gregory Nyss., Con Eun., 2.14; cf. Origen In Jn., 13.21f (N/A); Novation, De Trin 5ff; Tertullian Adv. Prax., 26; Hilary De Trin., 2.26; 3.4; 4.6.

71. Athanasius Ad Ser., 1.17-25

72. Athanasius Ad Ser., 1.15, 18; 4.2-5; Con Ar., 1.15, 20ff, 57; 2.36; Gregory Naz., Or., 30.20; 31.7; Hilary De Trin., 2.29ff; 4.1; 5.20f.

73. Basil had to deal with the same kind of questioning on the part of Eunomius, in which he presupposed that what he could not measure by human comprehension or understand by reasoning is wholly non-existent – Con Eun., 2.24.

74. Hilary De Trin., 1.13, 15, 3.1, 20, etc

75. See Hilary, De Trin., 12.55f.

76. Thus Karl Barth in his account of the Nicene doctrine of the Spirit – C. D. 1.1, pp. 468f

77. Hilary De Trin., 2.29: ‘The Spirit is joined with the Father and the Son in our confession of faith and cannot be excluded from a true confession of the Father and the Son – take away a part and the whole faith is marred.’ Cf. H. B. Swete with reference to Athanasius, op. cit., p. 220

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78. Athanasius Con Ar., 3.3-6, 4fAd Ser., 1.14, 25; 3.5f; 4.3f.

79. Athanasius De dec., 30f; Con Ar., 1.33f.

80. Athanasius Con Ar., 3.15, 24fAd Ser., 1.25; 3.5.

81. Epiphanius Haer., 57.4f; 62.1f, 6; 74.9ff; 76.22Anc., 5, 10f, 67f, 72 (N/A), 81; cf. Didymus, De Trin., 3.37-38 (Greek/Latin only); Cyril of Jer., Cat., 6.6; 7.11; 16.1ff; 17.1ff.

82. Athanasius Con Ar., 3.24-25.

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83. See Theol. in Reconcil., pp. 231-239

84. Athanasius Ad Ser., 1.27 – see the whole argument from 1.23; and Gregory Naz., Or., 41.9.

85. John 20.22.

86. 1 John 4.12f

87. John 14.6

88. ibid.

89. Athanasius Ad Ser., 1.19; cf. 1.20.