Chapter 6 The Eternal Spirit Footnotes 1-45

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The Trinitarian Faith

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1. Athanasius Ad Ser. 1.30; Epiphanius Haer., 74.7

2. See Epiphanius’ emphasis upon a three-fold πιστεύομεν in this respect, Haer 73.25; 74.14; Basil Ep., 236.6

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3. Is.6.3; And one called out to another and said, “Holy, Holy, Holy, is the Lord of hosts, The whole earth is full of His glory.”

see also Lev., 11.45f; 9.1-2; 20.7;

4. Cf. Isaiah. 1.4; 5.19; 5.24; Isaiah 10.17; 10.20; Isaiah 12.6; 17.7; Isaiah 29.19, 23; Isaiah 30.11-12; 31.1; Isaiah 37.23; Isaiah 40.25; Isaiah 41.14, 16, 20; Isaiah 43.3, 14, 15; Isaiah 45.11; 47.4; 48.17; Isaiah 49.7; 54.5; Isaiah 60.9, 15; cf Mk 1.24; Luke 4.34; John 6.69; Acts 3.14; 1John 2.20

5. Isaiah 63.10-11; Psalm 51.11

6. Of course, πνεῦμα like ר֫וּחַ literally meant ‘wind’ or ‘breath’, but whereas in classical Greek the original nuance was thinned out, it was largely retained in Hebrew and thus in the biblical use of πνεῦμα, as in John 3.8, or Acts 2.1f. For a carry over of the original nuance of πνεῦμα, see Gregory Nyss., Or. cat., 2.

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7. See Isaiah 11; 42; 44.3; 48.16; 59.21; 61; 62; 63; etc.

8. Cf. K. L. Schmidt, ‘Das Pneuma Hagion als Person und als Charisma’, Eranos Jahrbuch, 1946 (XIII) (N/A); and A. I. C. HeronThe Holy Spirit, 1983, pp. 1-60.

9. Basil Ep., 125.3

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10. See Con. Ar., 3.6, 10Ad Ser., 1.19f; cf. Didymus, De Trin., 1.5, 11 (N/A); and John of Damascus, De fide, 1.13.

11. Cf. Cyril of Jer., Cat., 16.3: The one Father, the one Son, and the one Spirit belong essentially and inseparably together.’

12. Cf. Eusebius, De eccl. theol., 1.12 (N/A); Gregory Naz., Or., 24.4 (typo??); 28.12; 29.2, 8; 30.17; 31.7, 33; Basil, Hom., 111 (N/A)

13. Epiphanius, Haer., 70.4-8.

14. Cf. Ps. Athanasius, Con Sebellianos, 5ff (MPG, 28.105f) which evidently is a variation on Basil’s Homily 111

15. See Athanasius, Con Ar., 1.15, 21De decr., 24De syn., 42 & 51. See Basil, Con Eun., 2.16De Sp. St., 15, 84 (typo maybe 64); Gregory Nyss., Con Eun., II.6, 4; Didymus, De Sp. St., 57 . In fact imagelessness is implied by the concept of God as ‘Light’ as well as ‘Spirit’ – cf. Athanasius, Ad Ser., 1.19, 30; Basil, De Sp. St., 47. 64; Epiphanius, Haer., 70.5.

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16. This would also prevent any ‘silly’ transference of male or female gender into Deity – Gregory Naz., Or. 31.7

17. Cf. Epiphanius Anc., 7, 46, 69fHaer. 69.17f, 32f; 74.6 etc.

18. See Didymus, De Trin., 2.6ff (N/A); Epiphanius, Haer., 73.15ff, 24f, 34f and especially the long refutation of the ‘Pneumatomachians’, 74.1-14.

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19.  Athanasius Ad Afr., 11; see Ad Ant., 3; and Epiphanius, Haer., 73.34.

20. Basil, Ep., 125, 159.2, 226.3Ep. Ad Epiph., 258.2; Epiphanius, Haer., 73.34.

21. Hence stress upon μία δοχολογία, as with Epiphanius, Anc., 24Haer., 62.3, 8; 69.29, 33, 56, 75; 74.14; 76Ref. Aet., 10, 21, 30 (N/A); Exp. fidei, 17 etc.

22. Athanasius., Ad Ser., 1.1-33; cf. Epiphanius, Anc., 65ffHaer., 74.2ff.

23. Gregory Naz., Or., 34.26-28 (typo might be 31.26-28).

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24. K L Schmidt, op cit., pp. 215f. See Gregory Naz., Or., 36.15 (typo might be 34.15); and Didymus, De Trin., 1.18 (Greek/Latin only), who puts this down to the indivisible nature of the divine Persons and the indifference of their order.

25. O. Cullmann, Early Christian Confessions

26. Athanasius, Ad Ser., 4.5. Also Basil 125.3

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27. See K L Schmidt, op cit pp. 209f, 216ff.

28. Also Apost. Const., 7.47: ‘Glory to God in the highest . . . . God Father Almighty, Lord only begotten Son, Jesus Christ, and Holy Spirit, Lord and God.’ Refer to Epiphanius Haer 74.10.

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29. Basil, De Sp. St., 73: We hymn Father and Son and Holy Spirit Divine’.

30. Didache, 7.1; Ignatius, Magn., 13.1; Polc. matyr., 14.3; Justin Martyr, Apol., 1.6, 13, 61, 65; Athenagoras, Leg., 6, 10, 12 ,24; Irenaeus, Adv. haer. 1.2ff, vol 1, p. 90ff (1.10.1ff); 3.1f, 4, vol 2 p. 22ff (3.6.1); 4.1f, pp. 146ff (4.1.2); 4.53.1, p. 261f (4.33.7); 5.20.1, pp. 377f (5.20.1); Dem., 5f; Hippolytus, Apost. Trad., 3, 8, 21; Novation De Trin., 7, 16, 29; Tertullian, Adv. Prax., 2-5, 8f, 11ff, 25, 30, etc.; Origen De princ. 1.3.5, 7f; 4.2f; 6.2; 2.2.2; 3.5.8; 4.3.14f; 4.1, 3In Jn., 2.6; 6.17, etc.

31. This was evidently the intention behind the gloss found in some Vulgate MSS upon 1John 5.6f which was made to read: ‘There are three that bear witness on earth, the Spirit, the water and the blood, and these three agree in one.’

32. See Athanasius, Ad Ser., 1.27; 2.3, 5; 3.1; Epiphanius Haer., 63.6 (typo poss. 62.6); 65.1ff; 74.12; 76.2; 76.35Exp. fidei, 14.

33. Athanasius Con Ar., 3.1ff; Epiphanius, Anc., 2-7, 10, 67, 72, 81Haer., 62.1ff; 64.9; 72.11; 73.20; 74.9, 11ff; 76.30; 77.22; Gregory Naz., Or., 29.16, 20; 31.10Schol., MPG 36.911; cf. Gregory’s defence of Basil against the charge of ‘economising the truth’ regarding the Deity of the Spirit, Ep., 58; Or. 43.68.

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34. Athanasius Ad Ser., 3.1ff.

35. Basil appealed for support in his views to Irenaeus, Clement, Origen and Dionysius of Alexandria – De. Sp. St., 72.

36. Cyril of Jer., Cat., 4.16. Thus also Amphilochius, Ep. Syn., Cf. the Byzantine Liturgy (F E Brightman, Eastern Liturgies, p. 382): ‘Let us love one another that we may confess with one mind, the Father, the Son and Holy Spirit, Trinity consubstantial and undivided.’ And the Roman adaptation the Gloria (C. E. Hammond,  Liturgies Eastern and Western, p. 296): ‘Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father . . . you alone are holy, you alone are Lord, you alone O Christ, with the Holy Spirit, are most high in the glory of the Father.’

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37. Refer to Athanasius Ad Ser.; Basil, De Sp. St., & Con Eun., 3; Gregory Naz., Or., 31, 37, 41; Gregory Nyss, De Sp. St.De Trin., Con Eun., 1; and Epiphanius Anc., 65ffHaer., 74. See Theol. in Reconcil., 231-9; and also T. C. Campbell, ‘The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit in the Theology of Athanasius,’ SJT, vol. 27, 1974, pp. 408-440.

38. Athanasius Ad Ser., 1.30; 3.1, 6; cf. Cyril of Jer., Cat., 16.24.

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39. Athanasius Ad Ser., 1.14 & Ephesians 4.6; see also Ad Ser., 1.20f; 3.5.

40. Athanasius Ad Ser., 1.28.

41. Athanasius Ad Ser., 1.31

42. Athanasius Ad Ser., 1.2, 20; 3.1-5; 4.4, 7, etc.

43. Athanasius Ad Ser., 1.31-33.

44. Athanasius Ad Ser., 1.2, 27; 3.1Ad Jov., 1, 4

45. Didymus, De Trin., (Greek/Latin only) 1.19; 1.33f; 1.36; 2.4; 2.6.6; 2.6.15; 2.6.22; 2.13; 2.25f; 3.1.2; 3.2.35, 46; 3.12.25f??; 3.18De Sp. St., 17.