Chapter 5 The Incarnate Saviour Footnotes 81-119

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The Trinitarian Faith

“The first of these words speak more about the actual event of redemption, while the second speaks specifically of the means of redemption, and the mode of atonement in the shedding of the blood of Christ, with direct relation to the covenant will of God for his people. When interpreted in the light of Jesus’ other statements about the salvation or redemption of human life and of their obvious Old Testament allusions, the general meaning is quite clear. No one can provide for himself or for another a means of salvation which will be accepted in exchange for his life or soul. but this is precisely what Jesus claims to do: to give his life as a sacrificial propitiation or ransom (λύτρον), thereby giving an interpretation of his life and death in terms of both of cultic atonement and of the suffering servant. Jesus declares that he has come as the servant to mediate God’s covenant with his people and offer his life in an act of sacrifice that will emancipate the lives of many (i.e. of all, as St Paul interpreted it). It was his whole life, and above all that life poured out in the supreme sacrifice of death on the Cross, that made atonement for sin, and constituted the price of redemption for mankind.”

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81. Mark 10.45 “For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many.”

cf. Mark 8.35 “For whoever wishes to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for My sake and the gospel’s will save it.”

Matt. 20.28 “just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many.”

Matt. 16.25f “For whoever wishes to save his life will lose it; but whoever loses his life for My sake will find it.”

Luke 9.24f “For whoever wishes to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for My sake, he is the one who will save it.”

Job 33.24 Then let him be gracious to him, and say, ‘Deliver him from going down to the pit, I have found a ransom’;

Job 33.28 ‘He has redeemed my soul from going to the pit, And my life shall see the light.’

Ps. 49.8-9 “For the redemption of his soul is costly, And he should cease trying forever—That he should live on eternally, That he should not undergo decay.

82. Mark 14.24 “And He said to them, “This is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many.”

Matt. 26.28 “for this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for forgiveness of sins.”

Luke 22.20 “And in the same way He took the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup which is poured out for you is the new covenant in My blood.”

cf. 1Tim 2.6 “who gave Himself as a ransom for all, the testimony given at the proper time.”

Titus 2.14 “who gave Himself for us to redeem us from every lawless deed, and to purify for Himself a people for His own possession, zealous for good deeds.”

Ex. 24.8 “So Moses took the blood and sprinkled it on the people, and said, “Behold the blood of the covenant, which the Lord has made with you in accordance with all these words.”

Is. 42.6 ““I am the Lord, I have called You in righteousness, I will also hold You by the hand and watch over You, And I will appoint You as a covenant to the people, As a light to the nations,”

Is. 49.8 “Thus says the Lord“In a favourable time I have answered You, And in a day of salvation I have helped You; And I will keep You and give You for a covenant of the people, To restore the land, to make them inherit the desolate heritages;”

Is. 53.10ff “But the Lord was pleased To crush Him, putting Him to grief; If He would render Himself as a guilt offering, He will see His offspring, He will prolong His days, And the good pleasure of the Lord will prosper in His hand. As a result of the anguish of His soul, He will see it and be satisfied; By  His knowledge the Righteous One, My  Servant, will justify the many, As He will bear their iniquities.  Therefore, I will allot Him a portion with the great, And He will divide the booty with the strong; Because He poured out Himself to death, And was numbered with the transgressors; Yet He Himself bore the sin of many, And interceded for the transgressors.”

Is. 55.3 “Incline your ear and come to Me. Listen, that you may live; And I will make an everlasting covenant with you, According to the faithful mercies shown to David.”

Jer. 31.31ff “Behold, days are coming,” declares the Lord, “when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,” declares the Lord. “But this is the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days,” declares the Lord, “I will put My law within them and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. They will not teach again, each man his neighbour and each man his brother, saying, ‘Know the Lord,’ for they will all know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them,” declares the Lord, “for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more.”

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83-85. For citation details see the book.

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86. Irenaues, Adv. Haer., 3.11.1, (3.10.3); vol. 2, p. 35; 3.19.6 (3.18.7) p. 100f; 4.24.2ff (4.13.2) vol. 2, p. 181ff; 4.27.3-28.1 (4.16.3-5) vol. 2, p. 190ff; 5.1.1ff, vol. 2, pp. 314ff; 5.14.1, vol. 2, p. 314; 5.17.1ff, vol. 2, p. 369ff; 5.21.1ff, vol. 2, pp. 380ff.

87. Cf. Ad Diognetum 7.4; 9.4

88. Irenaeus Adv haer. 3.8.2, vol. 2, p. 28f; 3.17.4 (3.16.4), p.85; 3.19.5f (3.18.6), pp. 100f; 3.32.2, (3.23.1) p. 125; 3.36.1, (3.23.7) p. 129; 5.1.1ff pp. 312ff; 5.21.1ff pp. 380ff.

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89. Irenaeus Adv. haer., 3.5.3, vol. 2, p. 20; 3.17.9f (3.16.9), pp. 90f; 4.10.1 (4.5.4), pp. 156f; 4.17 (4.8.3) pp. 166f; 4.34.2 (4.20.2) p. 214; 5.1.1ff pp. 314ff; 5.2.1f pp. 319ff; 5.14.2 pp. 361ff; 5.17.1 pp. 369f.

90. See Oscar Cullmann, The Earliest Christian Confessions, tr. by J. K. S. Reid (out of print), and my essay, ‘The Deposit of Faith,’ SJT, vol. 36, 1983, pp. 1-28.

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91. Athanasius Fest Ep., Easter AD 338, 10.10 – 1Cor. 5.7; also Ep., 14.7 (typo?). Cf. Origen In Jn., 28.5 (Greek only).

92. Athanasius, De inc., 9f, 16, 20ff, 25, 31.

93. De inc., 37, cf. 9

94. Hebrews 2.14f; Athanasius De inc., 10, 20De decr. 14Con Ar., 2.9, 55Ep., 2.7; 16.7 (N/A); Ad Adel., 7

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95. Origen (Greek/Latin only), In Matt., 16.8; cf. In Rom., 2.13; 3.8, 24??; 4.11 but also in In Lev., 9.10In Jn., 28.14

96. Thus also Adamantius, De recta fide, 1.27 (N/A); and Gregory Naz., Or., 45.22, 39.13Carm. theol., 10.65f (N/A).

97. Athanasius Con Ar., 1.41, 59f, 64; 2.7, 14, 55, 68ff, 75f; 3.31-35, 56f; 4.6fDe dec., 14.

98. Athanasius Con Ar., 1.41; 2.7-10; cf. Ad Epict., 5fAd Adel., 4ffAd Max., 3f.

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99. Thus Eusebius of Caesarea, Dem ev., 1.3, 10; 4.12; 8.2; 10.1; cf. the expositions of Origen, In Lev., 9.10; 14.4; In Num., 24.1; in Jn., 6.53; In Rom., 3.24. See also Augustine, In Ps., 39.12.

100. F E Brightmann, op. cit., vol. 1, The Eastern Liturgies, pp. 318, 378.; Chrysostom, In Heb., 6.20 (typo??); 9.25f. For characteristic reference in the liturgical tradition to the priestly of Christ, see Apostolic Constitutions, 2.4.25, 26; 5.2.6; 6.3.11; 6.6.30; 7.2.38; 7.4.47; 8.2.12; 8.5.46

101. Augustine De Trin., 4.14.19

102. Gregory Naz., Or., 4.5f (typo??); 38.16

103. Gregory Naz., Or., 30.20

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104. Gregory Naz., Carm., 2; Or., 30.21; 38.16

105. Gregory Naz., 45.22; cf. 39.13; and Carm., 10

106. Gregory Nyss., De perf. Christ., MPG, 46.264ADe occDom., MPG, 46.1165B-DCon Eun., Jaeger, vol. 2, p. 140 (N/A)

107. Gregory Nyss., Or. cat., 16, 24f, 27fCon Eun., 2.12f, Jaeger, 2, pp. 373-386. Cf. 3.10.10 (N/A); ‘He who knew no sin was made sin for us and in order to free us from the curse, he made our enmity against God his own slaying it in himself, as the apostle expressed it (the enmity was sin), and becoming what we are he reunited humanity to God through himself.’ Jaeger, 2, p. 239f (N/A).

108. Gregory Nyss., Or. cat., 22-26; Basil, In Ps., 7.2; 48.3f.

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109. Contrast Augustine, for the expiatory and propitiatory elements in the atonement made the idea of compensation to the devil unthinkable – De Trin., 4.14.17De Civ. Dei, 10.22Enchir. 41.

11o. 2Cor. 8.9 For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though He was rich, yet for your sake He became poor, so that you through His poverty might become rich.

111. Irenaeus, Adv. Haer., 5praef., vol. 2, p. 314; Cf. John Calvin:’This is the wonderful exchange (mirifica commutatio)) which out of his boundless kindness he has entered into with us: by becoming Son of Man with us he has name us sons of God with him; by his descent to earth he has prepared our ascent to heaven; by taking on himself our mortality he has bestowed on us his own immortality; by taking on himself our weakness he has made us strong with his strength; by receiving our poverty into himself he has transferred to us his riches; by taking on himself the burden of our iniquities with which we are weighed down, he has clothed us with righteousness.’ Inst., 4.17.2; also 4.17.3 & 42. Cf Luther, de lib. christ., WA, 7, p. 25.

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112. Ad Diog., 9.2

113. Origen, In Matt., 12.28, with reference to Matt. 16.26 For what will it profit a man if he gains the whole world and forfeits his soul? Or what will a man give in exchange for his soul?;

Mark 8.27 Jesus went out, along with His disciples, to the villages of Caesarea Philippi; and on the way He questioned His disciples, saying to them, “Who do people say that I am?”;

Is. 43.3f; For I am the Lord your God, The Holy One of Israel, your Savior; I have given Egypt as your ransom, Cush and Seba in your place.  “Since you are precious in My sight, Since you are honored and I love you, I will give other men in your place and other peoples in exchange for your life.

1Pet 1.18f;  knowing that you were not redeemed with perishable things like silver or gold from your futile way of life inherited from your forefathers, but with precious blood, as of a lamb unblemished and spotless, the blood of Christ.

1Cor. 6.20. For you have been bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body.

Cf. Adv. haer., 5.1.1, vol. 2, p. 315.

114. Athanasius Con Apol. 1.17.

115. Cf. Irenaeus, Adv.haer., 3.6.2, vol. 2, p. 22f; 3.19.2 (3.18.2), p. 95f, etc.

116. See, for example, Athanasius, Con Ar., 1.41-45. This inseparability in the early Church’s thought of the death and resurrection of Christ was in the use of the word pascha (πάσχα) to refer both to Christ’s passion and to his resurrection.

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117. Gregory Naz., Or., 1.5. See also Athanasius, Con Ar., 1.41; 4.6-7De decr., 14; Ad Epict., 6Ad Adel 4. But cf., Gregory Nyss., Or. cat., 24where he strangely misuses the concept of ‘exchange’ (ἀντάλλαγμα) in his theory of a ransom paid to the devil.

118. Romans 8.32 He who did not spare His own Son, but delivered Him over for us all, how will He not also with Him freely give us all things?

119. Clement of Alex., Quis div, salv., 31; cf. 27, 36-39.

Chapter 5 The Incarnate Saviour Footnotes 120-153