Chapter 5 The Incarnate Saviour Footnotes 41-80

The Trinitarian Faith

Page 157

41. Athanasius De inc., 1-7, 20, 26

42. Compare the discussion of Athanasius in Con. Ar., 2.67-70 with his presentation in De inc., 7-10.

Page 158

43. See especially Hilary De Trin., 11.20

Page 159

44. It is surely in this way the saving import of the virgin birth of Jesus is to be understood, for while it was a pure act of divine grace, it was an act made to issue out of true human flesh – Athanasius Con. Ar., 2.70; 3.56Ad Epict., 4-8; cf. De vit Ant., 67. Not that while in these passages Athanasius could speak of holy Mary as ‘ever-virgin’ and ‘God-bearer,’ he could also insist that she was ‘our sister in that we are all from Adam’. See also Con Ar., 3.29; Epiphanius Haer. 78.5; Didymus, De Trin., (Greek/Latin text only) 1.27.

45. Cyril of Alex. Ep. Ad Mon. Aeg., 25-26.

46. This was the emphatic teaching of Irenaeus Adv. hear., 3.19.6 (3.18.7), vol. 2, pp. 100f; of Athanasius, Con Ar., 1.38-44; and Gregory Naz., Or., 30.14. Augustine represents much the same teaching in the West, Conf., 10.68Serm. 293E.3In Jn. en., 82.4. For ‘real atonement,’ not as a direct deed of God ‘over man’s head,’ but as God’s act in man and from the side of man, and as issuing forth from man’s life and offered to God, consult the illuminating essay by F. W. Camfield, ‘The idea of substitution in the doctrine of Atonement,’ SJT, vol. 1, 1948, pp. 282-293.

47. Athanasius Ad Ant., 7οὐδὲ σώματος μόνου ἀλλὰ καὶ ψυχῆς ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ Λόγῳ σωτηρία γένομεν.

Page 160

48. Gregory Nyss., Or. cat., 22.

49. Gal. 4.3f: So also we, while we were children, were held in bondage under the elemental things of the world. But when the fullness of the time came, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the Law, so that He might redeem those who were under the Law, that we might receive the adoption as sons. Because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, crying, “Abba! Father!” Therefore you are no longer a slave, but a son; and if a son, then an heir through God.

Rom. 3.20f: because by the works of the Law no flesh will be justified in His sight; for through the Law comes the knowledge of sin. But now apart from the Law the righteousness of God has been manifested, being witnessed by the Law and the Prophets, even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all those who believe; for there is no distinction; for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, being justified as a gift by His grace through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus; whom God displayed publicly as a propitiation in His blood through faith. This was to demonstrate His righteousness, because in the forbearance of God He passed over the sins previously committed; for the demonstration, I say, of His righteousness at the present time, so that He would be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus.

50. I have in mind here what Kierkegaard spoke of as the ‘teleological suspension of ethics’ in the transition from a merely moral to a religious situation before God – Fear and Trembling (Eng. tr. by Robert Payne. pp. 75ff).

Page 161

51. Rom. 8.3 For what the Law could not do, weak as it was through the flesh, God did: sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and as an offering for sin, He condemned sin in the flesh,

2Cor 5.21 He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.

See Athanasius Con Ar., 1.43, 51, 60; 2.47, 55, 66, 69; 3.31ffAd Adel., 4In Ps., 21.31; Con Apol., 1.7; and cf. De vit. Ant., 7 and also Irenaeus, Adv. haer., 3.21.2 (3.21.2), vol.2, p. 107; and Eusebius of Caeserea, Dem. en. 1.10; 10.1.

52. Athanasius, ConAr., 1.43, 51, 60; 2.14, 47, 55, 66, 69; 3.31ffAd Adel. 4In Ps., 50.12; and ap. Theodoret, DialMPG. 83.177.

53. Cf. Con Apol., 2.6 ‘If sinlessness had not been seen in the nature which had sinned, how could sin have been condemned in the flesh, when that flesh had no capacity for action, and the Godhead knew not sin?’ Cf. T. A. Smail, Reflected Glory. The Spirit in Christ and in Christians, 1975, p. 67f.

Page 162

54. Hilary De Trin., 1.13. However, Hilary had a habit of qualifying what he said in his connection which appears to leave his conceptions of God’s self-identification with sinful humanity somewhat ambiguous – see De Trin., 10.47f; 11.16f.

55. Athanasius pointed out that what it was from the virgin birth of Jesus that ‘the beginning of our new creation took place,’ Con Ar., 2.70. Cf. Irenaeus, Adv. haer., 3.32.1 (3.22.3), vol. 2, pp. 123f; Dem., 37f

56. Gregory Nyss, Adv. Apol., Jaeger, vol. 3.1, p. 171. Thus also his Ep. Adv. Apol.: ‘Although he was made sin and a curse because of us, and took our weakness upon himself, yet he did not leave the sin and curse and the weakness enveloping him unhealed . . . Whatever is weak in our nature and subject to death was united with his Deity and became what the Deity is.’

Page 163

57. Gregory Naz., Or., 30.5

58. Cf. Con Ar., 1.41, 49; 2.47, 53, 56, 67-70, 74ff; 3.22ff., 53, 56f; 4.33.

59. Athanasius, Ad Epict., 7; see also Ad Ant., 7Con Ar., 2.36; 3.22; 4.35Con Apol. 1.5, 14f. For the same emphasis on the whole man see Irenaeus, Adv. haer., 5.6.1, vol. 2, p. 333f; 5.9.1, p. 342; 5.20.1, p. 378; Hilary De Trin., 10.15, 19, 21, 59; Epiphanius, Haer., 77.29.

60. Athanasius De inc., 15Con Ar., 1.41-50; 2.14, 53, 56; 3.27, 30-35, 38f, 43f, 52f; 4.6Ad Epict. 7Ad Ant., 7, 11Ad Ser., 1.6, 9; 2.9ap. Theodoret, Dial., 2, MPG, 83.177; see Con Apol. 1 & 2, passim, 1.5, 13-19; 2.1, 6, 10, 13, 16ff.

61. Origen Dialektos, 7. The whole man would not have been redeemed if he had not assumed the whole man (εἰ μὴ ὅλον τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἀνειλήφει).’ SC 67, p. 70. Cf. Irenaeus Adv. haer. 5.9.1, vol. 2, pp. 341f.

Page 164

62. Basil Ep. 261.2. For Western views of this see Marius Victorinus . Adv. Arium 3.3 (For the Latin refer to this page in the book). Also Ambrose, Ep. 261.2, ‘The very purpose for which he came was to save the whole man. If he had not redeemed the whole man, he would have failed.’

63. Gregory Naz. Ep.  101; cf. Or., 1.2-3; 22.13

64. Gregory Nyss., Antir. con Eun., Jaeger, 2, p. 386

Page 165

65. Athanasius Con Apol. 1.17

66. Gregory Naz., Ep. 101; cf also Or., 1.13; 30.21

67. Cyril of Alex., In Jn., MPG 74.89CD. For my account of Cyril’s teaching in this respect see Theol. in Reconc.  pp. 156-185.

Page 166

68. Athanasius De inc., 11-16

69. Ps. 83.2 LXX – Athanasius, Con Ar., 1.39Ad Afr., 7

70. See, for example, Clement, Paed., II., Protr. 11Strom., 6.15. Clement could make effective use of traditional biblical teaching about Christ giving himself as a ransom in the new covenant, but he transmuted simple faith in Christ as Redeemer into a spiritual gnosis – cf. Quis dives salvetur?, 23, 34, 37Paed., 3, 12, 37, 39; Strom., 2.15.64; 4.7; 5.1.2f; 5.1.1ff; 5.10.70; 5.26.1ff (typo?); In Jn., 5.6.

71. Cf. Irenaeus’ discussion of the Gnostic idea that ‘gnosis is the redemption of the inner man’ (ὤστε εἶναι τὴν γνῶσιν ἀπολυτρωσιν τοῦ ἔνδον ἀνθρώπου), Adv. haer 1.14.3 (1.21.4), vol. 1, p. 185.

72. Cf. Irenaeus, Adv. haer 4.11.1-5 (4.6.1), vol. 2, pp. 158-162; 4.34.1-12 (4.20.112), pp. 212-225; praef. & 1.1-2 (5.2.3), pp. 313-7.

Page 167

73. Irenaeus, Adv. haer., 2.33 (2.22.3), vol. 1, p. 330; 3.18.1-3 (3.17.14, vol. 2, pp.92ff; 3.19.5f (3.18.6), p. 99ff.

74. Cf. Hilary De Trin., 11.18ff

75. Athanasius Con Ar., 1.37-52

76. Athanasius Con Ar., 1.53-62; 2.1-10

77. Hebrews 5.8f  Although He was a Son, He learned obedience from the things which He suffered. And having been made perfect, He became to all those who obey Him the source of eternal salvation, being designated by God as a high priest according to the order of Melchizedek.

78. Gregory Naz., Or., 30.5-6; cf. Or., 2.23ff.

Page 168

79. See Athanasius De inc., 8ff, 20f, 25, 31, 36, 43Con Ar., 1.41ff, 46ff; 2.7ff, 44ff, 51ff, 69ff; 3.30ff, etc.

80. Cf. the eucharistic prayer in the Der-Balyzeh papyrus, J Beckmann, Quellen zur Geshichte des christlichen Gottesdienstes, 1956, pp. 8ff; and the Liturgies of St James and St Mark, F E Brightmann, Liturgies Eastern and Western vol. 1, pp. , 31ff113ff.

Chapter 5 The Incarnate Saviour Footnotes 81-120